Basic Geology and Petrophysics.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Define the science of geology, petrophysic and production geology.
  • Explain the build up of the earth.
  • Name the three main groups of rocks in the earth crust.
  • Explain plate tectonics.
  • Define terms porosity and permeability.
  • Explain and sketch folds and faults. Describe how migration can occur and oil and gas can be trapped.
  • Sketch and describe structural traps and stratigraphic traps.
  • Describe the various exploration methods.
  • State steps and successive stages in an exploration program.
  • Give and describe the well logging methods and the tools used to measure the formation parameters.
  • Describe how the results of logging are worked out and explain the task of the reservoir engineer.

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Drilling Sites and Drilling Rigs:

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Name the major components of a drilling rig
  • Describe the lay-out of an onshore drilling site
  • State the considerations which influence the choice of a rig
  • Name the various types of derricks and masts.
  • Explain where the load ratings of a derrick or mast on site can be found
  • Name the forces acting upon a derrick or mast.
  • Calculate the static and dynamic load of derricks and masts.
  • Give possible defects of a derrick or mast.
  • Inspect a rig using a rig-inspection report.

Prime Movers, Transmissions, Rotary and Hoisting Equipment, Wire Ropes.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Give the criteria which apply when selecting power systems
  • Describe what direct mechanical drive is.
  • Give the advantages and disadvantages of electrical diesel drive compared to direct mechanical drive.
  • Give a list of rules and regulations which a driller must follow to prevent accidents and breakdowns.
  • Describe the basic operation of clutches and where they are used.
  • Describe the basic operation and properties of torque converters, and give their advantages.
  • Describe the electric drive system for both electric drive and the SCR system
  • Explain why rig power is required.
  • Calculate the rig power required by hoisting equipment, rotary mud pumps and DC motors
  • Describe the composition and use of the rotary table
  • Describe the use of a top-drive system
  • List the main parts of hoisting equipment.
  • Describe and explain the drawworks.
  • Explain why drawworks have grooved drums.
  • Describe different types of brakes used in drawworks
  • Draw a diagram and explain the speed/torque characteristics of drawwork brakes.
  • Describe and list the components of the blocks and how they are inspected.
  • Describe the composition of the hook
  • Name the various types of elevators and their application.
  • Describe composition and how of slip-type elevators/spiders and how to inspect them.
  • Describe construction and physical properties of wire rope.
  • Name several kinds of wire rope terminations and give their strength in relation to breaking strength.
  • Calculate the capacity of a drum or reel.
  • Describe the reeving of a new block line.
  • Calculate the work done during drilling, round trips, coring and casing.
  • Explain the aim of the slip and cut program.
  • Name the principal causes of wireline problems
  • Make complete block line calculations.

Mud, Mud Pumps and Mud Systems.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Describe the function of mud and state the field tests carried out on drilling fluids.
  • Calculate hydrostatic pressure, draw pressure gradients, calculate buoyancy.
  • Give factors influencing the flow properties of the mud.
  • Explain: viscosity, shear rate, shear stress, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strength.
  • State and explain the factors influencing the carrying capacity of mud.
  • Explain fluid loss and how to control it.
  • Describe the filtration test.
  • Describe where oil-based fluids are used and state the advantages/disadvantages.
  • Explain where salt-saturated fluids are used.
  • State types of fluids used in workover and well completions.
  • Name the mechanical and formation factors that influence the choice of brine.
  • Explain the causes of lost circulation, how to restore circulation and state the main types of lost circulation materials.
  • Describe the working of single- and double- acting pumps. Explain why and where pulsation dampeners are used.
  • Calculate pump capacity, required power, volumetric efficiency.
  • Give reasons why pistons and liners have to be changed.
  • Explain the function of a relief valve.
  • Give applications of centrifugal pumps on the rig site.
  • Explain cavitations, calculate required input power
  • Describe the correct use of hopper and bulk storage tank.
  • Explain the working of the mud cleaning system.
  • Explain the basic working of a degasser and give possible causes of malfunction.

Rig Instrumentation.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Explain the importance of drilling instrumentation.
  • Name the most important instruments on the rig.
  • Explain the function and working of the weight indicator and rotary torque instruments.
  • Explain how RPM's and SPM can be counted.
  • Give some causes of standpipe pressure variations.
  • Explain how to mount remote pressure gauges correctly.
  • Explain how drilling parameters are recorded.
  • Explain and describe flow line recorder, pit volume totalizer.
  • Explain the dangers of H2S and MAC value and explosion limits.
  • Describe the function of the mud gas detector

Basic Drilling Engineering Courses
Drill String Design.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Define the terms stress, strain, yield point, yield strength and yield stress.
  • List the forces exerted on a drill string
  • State causes of fatigue and corrosion.
  • List the tests and inspections carried out on drill pipe, drill collars and drill string accessories.
  • List and explain the characteristics of drill pipe and tool joints.
  • Calculate the maximum height of tool joints above the slips to prevent bending during tonging.
  • Determine the allowable torque and pull on API drill pipe.
  • Calculate length and number of drill collars needed for a particular WOB.
  • Describe the function and application of casing protectors, stabilizers, crossover subs, float sub and HWDP.
  • List five items important for preventing drill string failures.
  • Explain the working of a mud motor and a turbine, their application and correct use.

Drill Bits.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Describe the composition of roller cone bits, PDC bits and diamond bits.
  • Determine the correct bit choice via a bit classification system.
  • List the design considerations for the different bit types.
  • Determine the terms crushing, scraping and gouging and in what formation these cutting actions take place.
  • Describe the various types of nozzles used in bits
  • Name the factors that influence bit performance.
  • Describe the drilling parameters (WOB, RPM, flow rate) and their relation to each other.
  • Describe why and how a drill off test is carried out.
  • Describe and carry out a rock bit evaluation.
  • Give the causes of wear and possible remedies.
  • Explain when coring is used.
  • Describe the composition and correct use of a conventional core barrel.

Drilling Hydraulics.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Give the objectives of a drilling hydraulics program.
  • List the parameters that should be considered when designing a hydraulic program.
  • Calculate volume output and hydraulic power supplied by the mud pump under given conditions and given pump specifications.
  • Give the equations for pressure drop at the bit, jet velocity and annular velocity.
  • Give the effects of changes in the fluid velocity, density and pipe length on pressure losses.
  • Determine the values of c and N in the equation P = c.QN in a given situation.

Casing Practices.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Specify why casing has to run in wells.
  • Specify the main types of casing strings and their specific functions.
  • Describe the various casing connections and specify their operational characteristics.
  • Specify the function of float shoes and float collars.
  • Specify why casing centralizers are used and how they are installed.
  • Specify when collar-type and when slip-type elevators are used.
  • Specify why a circulating head is used.
  • Specify the importance of proper storage of casing material in offshore operations.
  • Make the relevant check calculations for a given derrick and casing run to be run.
  • Specify what should be done on receipt of casing materials and tools at the rig.
  • Specify and describe what should be done to prepare a rig for a casing job.
  • Describe why a wiper trip has to be made before the casing is run.
  • Describe the proper casing running procedure.

Cementing Practices.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Specify why a casing has to be cemented.
  • List the various techniques of primary cementation.
  • Explain hydraulic bond and shear bond of the cement and how bonding is improved.
  • List reasons for a secondary cementation.
  • Specify and explain the use of light-weight cement slurry.
  • State why the quality of mix water should be checked.
  • Specify the function of spacers, wiper plugs and how they are used.
  • Specify different slurry mixing systems and compare their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Describe single-stage and two-stage cementing. List the sequence for two-stage cementing.
  • List the operating sequence for liner cementation and specify the additional equipment.
  • Describe the cement pressure test.
  • Specify how top of cement column can be estimated.
  • Make the calculations for preparing:
  • A single stage primary cementation
  • A two stage primary cementation
  • A stinger surface casing cementation.
  • A liner cementation.
  • A balance plug-back cementation

Well Control and Well Control Equipment.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Define the terms kick, blow-out, primary control, secondary control.
  • Sketch and explain a PZ diagram with hydrostatic and overburden gradient.
  • Describe how the overburden or bulk gradient can be calculated.
  • Define the terms: normal-, over- and under-pressured formations.
  • State and explain the mechanism causing abnormal formation fluid pressures.
  • Be familiar with the stresses acting on a borehole.
  • Define the upper and lower limit of primary control.
  • Explain how the correct mud weight can be determined in an unknown area.
  • State how over-pressure predictions are obtained.
  • Explain how during drilling and tripping influx entering the well bore can be noticed.
  • State the close-in procedure of a well while drilling and while pulling.
  • State the importance of practice drills carried out on the rig.
  • Calculate the new mud gradient after a well is closed in.
  • Explain the four phases in well control and sketch these phases in a standpipe pressure graph and in a choke pressure graph.
  • Make the calculations necessary for killing a well.
  • Define the function of well control equipment.
  • Sketch a diagram of the well killing system and describe the functions of the equipment involved.
  • Describe the working of the choke.
  • Describe annular preventers and the precautions to increase life of rubbers.
  • State the requirements for a hydraulic system or accumulator unit.
  • Explain why the pre-charge of the accumulator is so important.
  • List the additional well equipment required during tripping.
  • Give the test procedure for all well control equipment.

Fishing Operations.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Specify causes of fishing jobs.
  • List considerations prior to fishing jobs.
  • Describe junk-retrieval tools.
  • Explain how a bit twist-off can be prevented.
  • Explain how drill-pipe and drill-collar twist-off can be prevented.
  • Summarize the warning signs for differential sticking and key-seating.
  • Describe how to estimate the length of free pipe by using a stretch test.
  • Describe the procedure for backing-off a stuck pipe.
  • Describe the operation of an internal pipe cutter and internal fishing tools.
  • List the limitations of internal fishing tools.
  • Describe the composition and operation of an overshot.
  • Explain when wash-over tools are used.
  • Explain the mechanism of jars, accelerator and surface jar.
  • List precautions when jarring.
Directional Drilling.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • State reasons for directional drilling.
  • Draw a well plot of a deviated well and name design factors.
  • Define Magnetic North, True North, Grid North, declination, convergence.
  • Give definitions of commonly used terms in directional drilling.
  • Describe tools used to kick-off.
  • Explain how down hole motors are oriented.
  • Compose a building assembly, dropping- and holding assembly.
  • Describe the working principle and use of magnetic surveying instruments.
  • Explain the importance of non magnetic drill collars.
  • Describe the working principle and use of gyroscopic survey instruments.
  • Explain tool setting for inclination change only, azimuth change only and both.
  • Describe the use of orientation and deflection tools.

Offshore Operations.

After this course the student should be able to:
  • Name the environmental elements that influence offshore drilling.
  • Explain the general lay-out of and drilling practices on fixed platforms.
  • Show how to calculate the setting depth of a marine conductor.
  • List precautions usually taken in respect of tender stability.
  • Give the correct expressions for vessel movements.
  • Give the advantages and disadvantages of jack-up platforms.
  • Explain what a free standing well with surface BOP is and how it is drilled.
  • Explain what a mud line suspension system with BOP at surface is.
  • Describe the composing parts and tools used in a mud line suspension system.
  • Explain the terms used in floater's stability and rig motions.
  • Explain how floaters are kept on location.
  • Name and describe the equipment required to compensate for the rig movements.
  • Give a brief outline of a sub sea well head with BOP's on sea bed.
  • List special equipment for sub sea well control.
  • Describe the operation of a fail safe valve.
  • Name the main components of a sub sea BOP control system.
  • State the function of a marine riser and describe the different parts.
  • Give a summary of the drilling sequence for a well with BOP's at sea bed.
  • Describe the seating and the sealing of a casing string in a sub sea well head.
  • Describe testing a stack before it is lowered to the sea bed.
  • Describe the test after landing the BOP stack including the marine riser with choke and kill line.
  • Give a brief description of what has to be done when abandoning a well.